CHARACTERISATION OF SLOVENIAN OVINE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE CASES
Juntes Polona1, Zabavnik Piano Jelka1, Cotman Marko1, Ambrožiè Ivan2 1University of Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty, Slovenia 2MAFF, Veterinary Administration of Republic Slovenia, Slovenia
Atypical scrapie is a form of scrapie described in sheep at first in 1998 in Norway (NOR 98), and later in a number of other countries, including very recently in New Zeeland and Australia. The first cases of atypical scrapie were found in Slovenia in 2010 and their characteristics are presented.
Materials and Methods
Brain samples were collected during routine monitoring for TSEs from sheep that died or were killed on farms. Atypical cases were found with rapid test, after that, several methods for characterisation were applied - three additional rapid tests, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, genotyping, and BSE/TSE discriminatory test.
All tests which necessitate proteinase K digestion were negative, BSE and classical scrapie were excluded, but immunohistochemistry revealed pattern characteristic for NOR 98 atypical scrapie. Beside that, several ovine cases have been found which show somewhat different atypical immunostaining of cerebellum, and which were concluded as unconfirmed for TSE (not negative) after additional examination in the CRL for TSE.
Atypical scrapie can be expected in small ruminants in all countries but detection requires appropriate testing. Slovenian ovine atypical scrapie cases are similar to NOR 98 however we should be aware that other forms of atypical scrapie may appear.
usda scrapie report for April 2011 NEW ATYPICAL NOR-98 SCRAPIE CASE Pennsylvania AND California
POSITIVE SCRAPIE CASES
As of April 30, 2011, 14 cases of classical scrapie and 2 cases of Nor98-like scrapie were confirmed by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL); 7 of the positive cases were Regulatory Scrapie Slaughter Surveillance (RSSS) cases (collected between October 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and confirmed by May 16, 2011) and 9 were field cases including 1 positive goat (Figure 6). With this positive, 22 cases of scrapie in goats have been confirmed by the NVSL since implementation of the regulatory changes in FY 2002 (Figure7).
see map showing 2011 Nor-98 Scrapie cases shown by the asterisk, one blue and one green. why the different colors ??? again i would like to address to the USDA scrapie officials, just how terribly there maps are, in showing past scrapie cases. it's like if you don't catch them when they are first reported, you don't catch them at all. STILL, NO MAP SHOWS PAST SCRAPIE CASES ? it's like they are trying to hide the old cases as if they didn't happen $$$
also, please note, atypical Nor-98 scrapie cases are spreading in both Canada and the USA. Mexico, nobody knows anything about the TSE prion diseases down there ???
Increased Atypical Scrapie Detections
Press reports indicate that increased surveillance is catching what otherwise would have been unreported findings of atypical scrapie in sheep. In 2009, five new cases have been reported in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. With the exception of Quebec, all cases have been diagnosed as being the atypical form found in older animals. Canada encourages producers to join its voluntary surveillance program in order to gain scrapie-free status. The World Animal Health will not classify Canada as scrapie-free until no new cases are reported for seven years. The Canadian Sheep Federation is calling on the government to fund a wider surveillance program in order to establish the level of prevalence prior to setting an eradication date. Besides long-term testing, industry is calling for a compensation program for farmers who report unusual deaths in their flocks.
The most recent assessments (and reassessments) were published in June 2005 (Table I; 18), and included the categorisation of Canada, the USA, and Mexico as GBR III. Although only Canada and the USA have reported cases, the historically open system of trade in North America suggests that it is likely that BSE is present also in Mexico.
Sunday, March 27, 2011
SCRAPIE USA UPDATE FEBRUARY 2011
Wednesday, February 16, 2011
SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES
Sunday, April 18, 2010
SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010
Monday, April 25, 2011
Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep
Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011
Monday, November 30, 2009
USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE
I strenuously urge the USDA and the OIE et al to revoke the exemption of the legal global trading of atypical Nor-98 scrapie TSE. ...TSS
Friday, February 11, 2011
Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues
EVIDENCE OF SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AS A RESULT OF FOOD BORNE EXPOSURE
This is provided by the statistically significant increase in the incidence of sheep scrape from 1985, as determined from analyses of the submissions made to VI Centres, and from individual case and flock incident studies. ........
Thursday, December 23, 2010
Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009 Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011
Thursday, November 18, 2010
Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep
Sunday, October 3, 2010
Scrapie, Nor-98 atypical Scrapie, and BSE in sheep and goats North America, who's looking ?
*** In spite of the poorly defined effects of PRNP genetics, scrapie strain, dose, route and source of infection, the caprine placenta may represent a source of infection to progeny and herd mates as well as a source of persistent environmental contamination. ***
Could this route of infection be the cause of the many cases of Goat scrapie from the same herd in Michigan USA ?
Has this been investigated ?
(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...
Kind Regards, Terry
Thursday, January 07, 2010
Scrapie and Nor-98 Scrapie November 2009 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2010 and FISCAL YEAR 2008
In FY 2010, 72 cases of classical Scrapie and 5 cases of Nor-98 like Scrapie were confirmed...
Scrapie Nor-98 like case in California FY 2011 AS of December 31, 2010.
Scrapie cases in goats FY 2002 - 2011 AS of December 31, 2010 Total goat cases = 21 Scrapie cases, 0 Nor-98 like Scrapie cases (21 field cases, 0 RSSS cases)
Last herd with infected goats disignated in FY 2008 Michigan 8 cases
SEE FULL TEXT ;
Tuesday, February 01, 2011
Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie
Monday, May 23, 2011
Atypical Prion Diseases in Humans and Animals 2011
Top Curr Chem (2011) DOI: 10.1007/128_2011_161 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011 Michael A. Tranulis, Sylvie L. Benestad, Thierry Baron, and Hans Kretzschmar
Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the “scrapie form” (PrPSc), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans.
M.A. Tranulis (*)
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway
Agence Nationale de Se´curite´ Sanitaire, ANSES, Lyon, France
Ludwig–Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Keywords Animal Atypical Atypical/Nor98 scrapie BSE-H BSE-L Human Prion disease Prion strain Prion type
snip...SEE MORE HERE ;
Sunday, May 01, 2011
STUDY OF ATYPICAL BSE 2010 Annual Report May 2011
Wednesday, June 01, 2011
Management of CWD in Canada: Past Practices, Current Conditions, Current Science, Future Risks and Options
Thursday, June 2, 2011
USDA scrapie report for April 2011 NEW ATYPICAL NOR-98 SCRAPIE CASES Pennsylvania AND California