Australia is free of scrapie, also known as ‘classical’ scrapie, and has been assessed as a ‘negligible bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk’ (the lowest risk) by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Both diseases belong to a group of diseases termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or ‘prion diseases’.
Active surveillance occurs to validate Australia’s status for both diseases, through the National Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Surveillance Program (NTSESP), consistent with OIE recommendations. Results are routinely reported in Animal Health Surveillance Quarterly.
The first case of atypical scrapie (another TSE) in Australia has been confirmed in a single sheep, through the NTSESP. This is not a surprising finding. Atypical scrapie is a rare, sporadic, degenerative brain condition that spontaneously occurs in a very small proportion of older sheep and, less commonly, in goats. Most countries that test large numbers of sheep for scrapie have found one or more cases of atypical scrapie.
Testing on samples from the affected sheep at the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory in March 2010 showed preliminary results consistent with atypical scrapie. The results were confirmed by the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies at Weybridge in the United Kingdom, an OIE reference laboratory.
Atypical scrapie is clinically, pathologically, biochemically and epidemiologically unrelated to classical scrapie, and has been recognised as a distinct disease of sheep and goats for about a decade. During this time, the disease has been diagnosed in more than 20 countries worldwide. It does not pose a risk to human health or to the productivity of the Australian sheep flock. There is evidence that it is not naturally spread to other animals. It is not known to have any causal relationship to other TSEs, including BSE in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer, or any form of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in people.
As atypical scrapie is a different disease to classical scrapie, Australia’s internationally recognised status as free from scrapie will not change as a result of this case. Contributed by Reg Butler, Biosecurity Services Group, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
Proposed changes to the Terrestrial Animal Health Code and the Aquatic Animal Health Code were debated. Changes to the Terrestrial Code were adopted for the chapters on anthrax, bluetongue and scrapie.
National Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Surveillance Program
The National Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Surveillance Program (NTSESP) is an integrated national program jointly funded by industry and government. Its purpose is to demonstrate Australia’s ongoing freedom from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie, and to provide early detection of these diseases should they occur. The program, based on the Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Code,1 involves testing of samples from cattle and sheep with clinical signs consistent with BSE or scrapie, respectively, as well as from fallen and casualty slaughter cattle. Points are assigned to cattle samples according to the animal’s age and subpopulation category (i.e. the likelihood of detecting BSE). Australia’s target is to achieve a minimum of 150 000 points over a rolling seven-year period. Table 13 shows the number of animals sampled for BSE and scrapie, and the points tally for cattle, in the NTSESP over the past 12 months. All samples tested were negative.
Additional information about the NTSESP is available at www.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/aahc/programs/adsp/tsefap/tse_ntsesp.cfm.
Contact: Duncan Rowland, Animal Health Australia’s NTSESP National Coordinator 1 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Chapter 11.6, Terrestrial Animal Health Code, OIE 2009.
Table 13 Samples tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie from 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010
State No. examined No. points No. positive No. examined No. positive
NSW 175 46 753.9 0 161 0
NT 15 8 680 0 0 0
Qld 271 75 391.5 0 19 0
SA 39 11 507.5 0 71 0
Tas 24 8 642.5 0 8 0
Vic 214 77 035.8 0 140 0
WA 76 22 843 0 157 0
Aus 814 250 854.2 0 556 0
Archive Number 20100312.0803 Published Date 12-MAR-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Scrapie, atypical, ovine - Australia: (WA) susp
SCRAPIE, ATYPICAL, OVINE - AUSTRALIA: (WESTERN AUSTRALIA) SUSPECTED
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
 Date: Fri 12 Mar 2010 Source: The Australian [edited]
A West Australian sheep has been found to have signs characteristic of the fatal brain disease atypical scrapie. It comes as Australia faces growing anger from its trade partners over the Rudd government's surprise decision to extend a ban on the importation of beef from countries exposed to mad cow disease for a further 2 years.
Australia's chief veterinarian, Andy Carroll, told the ABC an indicative case of the atypical scrapie had been confirmed but said it posed no risk to human or animal health or the safety of eating meat and animal products.
Nor does atypical scrapie carry the dire trade consequences associated with classical scrapie.
Classical scrapie is in the same transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) family as BSE, better known as mad cow disease, from which humans can be fatally infected.
Dr Carroll said samples from the sheep's brain were being sent to the World Reference Laboratory in Britain.
Neither atypical scrapie nor classical scrapie has been seen in Australia before, but a sheep in New Zealand tested positive to the atypical form last year .
Atypical scrapie is a relatively recently discovered disease and the common scientific view is that it occurs spontaneously or naturally in very small numbers of older sheep in countries all over the world.
[Byline: Jodie Minus]
-- Communicated by: Sabine Zentis Castleview Pedigree English Longhorns Gut Laach 52385 Nideggen Germany
******  Date: Wed 10 Mar 2010 Source: ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) [edited]
Animal health authorities are testing a sheep's brain for what could be Australia's 1st case of the disease atypical scrapie.
Although not confirmed, the sheep is thought to be from Western Australia.
This type of scrapie is described as a sporadic degenerative brain condition affecting older sheep, and is not contagious.
Ed Klim, from national advisory group SafeMeat, says a 2nd round of testing is now taking place. "We've been made aware that the Australian Animal Health Laboratory is conducting further routine testing on a sheep sample," he says.
"The disease isn't considered a health risk nor should have any impact on food safety or export markets for sheep meat of live sheep."
Australia's chief veterinarian and WA's Department of Agriculture of Food are both aware of the testing but will not comment.
-- Communicated by: Terry S Singeltary Sr
[Although atypical scrapie is not yet ruled out, it is important to realize this is a type of scrapie that thus far has only tended to appear as a sporadic condition in older animals. Currently it has not been shown to follow the same genetic tendencies for propagation as the usual scrapie.
However, the atypical phenotypic appearance has been shown to be preserved on experimental passage.
Atypical scrapie was first identified in Norwegian sheep in 1998 and has subsequently been identified in many countries, as Australia may join that list. It is likely that this case will be sent to the UK for definitive conformation.
[Ref: M Simmons, T Konold, L Thurston, et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2010, 6:14 [provisional abstract available at
"Background ----------- "Retrospective studies have identified cases predating the initial identification of this form of scrapie, and epidemiological studies have indicated that it does not conform to the behaviour of an infectious disease, giving rise to the hypothesis that it represents spontaneous disease. However, atypical scrapie isolates have been shown to be infectious experimentally, through intracerebral inoculation in transgenic mice and sheep. [Many of the neurological diseases can be transmitted by intracerebral inoculation, which causes this moderator to approach intracerebral studies as a tool for study, but not necessarily as a direct indication of transmissibility of natural diseases. - Mod.TG]
"The 1st successful challenge of a sheep with 'field' atypical scrapie from an homologous donor sheep was reported in 2007.
"Results -------- "This study demonstrates that atypical scrapie has distinct clinical, pathological, and biochemical characteristics which are maintained on transmission and sub-passage, and which are distinct from other strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in the same host genotype.
"Conclusions ------------ Atypical scrapie is consistently transmissible within AHQ homozygous sheep, and the disease phenotype is preserved on sub-passage."
Lastly, this moderator wishes to thank Terry Singletary for some of his behind the scenes work of providing citations and references for this posting. - Mod.TG]
The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Australia is available at
Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.
4.2.9 A further hypothesis to explain the occurrence of BSE is the emergence or selection of a strain or strains of the scrapie agent pathogenic for cattle. Mutations of the scrapie agent. which can occur after a single passage in mice. have been well documented (9). This phenomenon cannot be dismissed for BSE. but given the form of the epidemic and the geographically widespread occurrence of BSE, such a hypothesis" would require the emergence of a mutant scrapie strain simultaneously in a large . number of sheep flocks, or cattle. throughout the country. Also. if it resulted "from a localised chance transmission of the scrapie strain from sheep to cattle giving rise , . to a mutant. a different pattern of disease would have been expected: its range would '. have increased with time. Thus the evidence from Britain is against the disease being due to a new strain of the agent, but we note that in the United States from 1984 to 1988 outbreaks of scrapie in sheep flocks are reported to have Increased markedly. now being nearly 3 times as high as during any previous period (18).
If the scrapie agent is generated from ovine DNA and thence causes disease in other species, then perhaps, bearing in mind the possible role of scrapie in CJD of humans (Davinpour et al, 1985), scrapie and not BSE should be the notifiable disease. ...
EVIDENCE OF SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AS A RESULT OF FOOD BORNE EXPOSURE
This is provided by the statistically significant increase in the incidence of sheep scrape from 1985, as determined from analyses of the submissions made to VI Centres, and from individual case and flock incident studies. ........
1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8
Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.
Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.
Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.
The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
12/10/76 AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE Office Note CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY
A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie A] The Problem
Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all countries.
The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group (ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss; it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United States, to British sheep.
It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be devised as quickly as possible.
Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"
Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.
Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.
Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.
Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0
Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK
National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).
Epidemiology of Scrapie in the United States 1977
Monday, December 1, 2008
When Atypical Scrapie cross species barriers
Andreoletti O., Herva M. H., Cassard H., Espinosa J. C., Lacroux C., Simon S., Padilla D., Benestad S. L., Lantier F., Schelcher F., Grassi J., Torres, J. M., UMR INRA ENVT 1225, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse.France; ICISA-INlA, Madrid, Spain; CEA, IBiTec-5, DSV, CEA/Saclay, Gif sur Yvette cedex, France; National Veterinary Institute, Postboks 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway, INRA IASP, Centre INRA de Tours, 3738O Nouzilly, France.
Atypical scrapie is a TSE occurring in small ruminants and harbouring peculiar clinical, epidemiological and biochemical properties. Currently this form of disease is identified in a large number of countries. In this study we report the transmission of an atypical scrapie isolate through different species barriers as modeled by transgenic mice (Tg) expressing different species PRP sequence.
The donor isolate was collected in 1995 in a French commercial sheep flock. inoculation into AHQ/AHQ sheep induced a disease which had all neuro-pathological and biochemical characteristics of atypical scrapie. Transmitted into Transgenic mice expressing either ovine or PrPc, the isolate retained all the described characteristics of atypical scrapie.
Surprisingly the TSE agent characteristics were dramatically different v/hen passaged into Tg bovine mice. The recovered TSE agent had biological and biochemical characteristics similar to those of atypical BSE L in the same mouse model. Moreover, whereas no other TSE agent than BSE were shown to transmit into Tg porcine mice, atypical scrapie was able to develop into this model, albeit with low attack rate on first passage.
Furthermore, after adaptation in the porcine mouse model this prion showed similar biological and biochemical characteristics than BSE adapted to this porcine mouse model. Altogether these data indicate.
(i) the unsuspected potential abilities of atypical scrapie to cross species barriers
(ii) the possible capacity of this agent to acquire new characteristics when crossing species barrier
These findings raise some interrogation on the concept of TSE strain and on the origin of the diversity of the TSE agents and could have consequences on field TSE control measures.
Aspects of the Cerebellar Neuropathology in Nor98
Gavier-Widén, D1; Benestad, SL2; Ottander, L1; Westergren, E1 1National Veterinary Insitute, Sweden; 2National Veterinary Institute,
Norway Nor98 is a prion disease of old sheep and goats. This atypical form of scrapie was first described in Norway in 1998. Several features of Nor98 were shown to be different from classical scrapie including the distribution of disease associated prion protein (PrPd) accumulation in the brain. The cerebellum is generally the most affected brain area in Nor98. The study here presented aimed at adding information on the neuropathology in the cerebellum of Nor98 naturally affected sheep of various genotypes in Sweden and Norway. A panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings such as IHC for PrPd, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, amyloid, and cell markers for phagocytic cells were conducted. The type of histological lesions and tissue reactions were evaluated. The types of PrPd deposition were characterized. The cerebellar cortex was regularly affected, even though there was a variation in the severity of the lesions from case to case. Neuropil vacuolation was more marked in the molecular layer, but affected also the granular cell layer. There was a loss of granule cells. Punctate deposition of PrPd was characteristic. It was morphologically and in distribution identical with that of synaptophysin, suggesting that PrPd accumulates in the synaptic structures. PrPd was also observed in the granule cell layer and in the white matter. The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.
***The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.
NOR98 SHOWS MOLECULAR FEATURES REMINISCENT OF GSS
R. Nonno1, E. Esposito1, G. Vaccari1, E. Bandino2, M. Conte1, B. Chiappini1, S. Marcon1, M. Di Bari1, S.L. Benestad3, U. Agrimi1 1 Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Rome, Italy (email@example.com); 2 Istituto Zooprofilattico della Sardegna, Sassari, Italy; 3 National Veterinary Institute, Department of Pathology, Oslo, Norway
Molecular variants of PrPSc are being increasingly investigated in sheep scrapie and are generally referred to as "atypical" scrapie, as opposed to "classical scrapie". Among the atypical group, Nor98 seems to be the best identified. We studied the molecular properties of Italian and Norwegian Nor98 samples by WB analysis of brain homogenates, either untreated, digested with different concentrations of proteinase K, or subjected to enzymatic deglycosylation. The identity of PrP fragments was inferred by means of antibodies spanning the full PrP sequence. We found that undigested brain homogenates contain a Nor98-specific PrP fragment migrating at 11 kDa (PrP11), truncated at both the C-terminus and the N-terminus, and not N-glycosylated. After mild PK digestion, Nor98 displayed full-length PrP (FL-PrP) and N-glycosylated C-terminal fragments (CTF), along with increased levels of PrP11. Proteinase K digestion curves (0,006-6,4 mg/ml) showed that FL-PrP and CTF are mainly digested above 0,01 mg/ml, while PrP11 is not entirely digested even at the highest concentrations, similarly to PrP27-30 associated with classical scrapie. Above 0,2 mg/ml PK, most Nor98 samples showed only PrP11 and a fragment of 17 kDa with the same properties of PrP11, that was tentatively identified as a dimer of PrP11. Detergent solubility studies showed that PrP11 is insoluble in 2% sodium laurylsorcosine and is mainly produced from detergentsoluble, full-length PrPSc. Furthermore, among Italian scrapie isolates, we found that a sample with molecular and pathological properties consistent with Nor98 showed plaque-like deposits of PrPSc in the thalamus when the brain was analysed by PrPSc immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results show that the distinctive pathological feature of Nor98 is a PrP fragment spanning amino acids ~ 90-155. This fragment is produced by successive N-terminal and C-terminal cleavages from a full-length and largely detergent-soluble PrPSc, is produced in vivo and is extremely resistant to PK digestion.
*** Intriguingly, these conclusions suggest that some pathological features of Nor98 are reminiscent of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.
A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes
Annick Le Dur*,?, Vincent Béringue*,?, Olivier Andréoletti?, Fabienne Reine*, Thanh Lan Laï*, Thierry Baron§, Bjørn Bratberg¶, Jean-Luc Vilotte?, Pierre Sarradin**, Sylvie L. Benestad¶, and Hubert Laude*,?? +Author Affiliations
*Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires and ?Génétique Biochimique et Cytogénétique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; ?Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, 31066 Toulouse, France; §Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Agents Transmissibles Non Conventionnels, 69364 Lyon, France; **Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France; and ¶Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, 0033 Oslo, Norway
***Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA (received for review March 21, 2005)
Abstract Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrPc), into a misfolded form, abnormal PrP (PrPSc), plays a key role in TSE transmission and pathogenesis. The intensified surveillance of scrapie in the European Union, together with the improvement of PrPSc detection techniques, has led to the discovery of a growing number of so-called atypical scrapie cases. These include clinical Nor98 cases first identified in Norwegian sheep on the basis of unusual pathological and PrPSc molecular features and "cases" that produced discordant responses in the rapid tests currently applied to the large-scale random screening of slaughtered or fallen animals. Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. *** These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.
EU COMMENTS AND POSITIONS
On the proposed changes to OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals
CHAPTER 2.4.6: BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
The changes proposed are generally welcomed by the EU. However, some specific comments detailed below should be taken into account for the final revised version to be adopted in the next General Session.
LINE 13: The words "and possibly spontaneous" should be added as follows: "... suggesting that earlier, undetected indigenous and possibly spontaneous cases may have occurred."
LINE 31: The EU would argue for the re-instatement of the deleted phrase [before, or without, the recognition] since fallen stock in particular could be showing some clinical signs which went unrecognised. As written, it applies more to the active screening of the healthy slaughter population.
Line 228: Replace: "All currently recognized forms of BSE (C, H and L-Type) are detectable by these methods." with: "Classical BSE is recognized by all these methods, while a complete evaluation of the approved BSE rapid tests on atypical forms (C, H and L-Type) was never carried out".
Monday, November 30, 2009
USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE
Sunday, March 28, 2010
Nor-98 atypical Scrapie, atypical BSE, spontaneous TSE, trade policy, sound science ?
THE O.I.E. and it's junk science continues to emerge, and spread, and put the cart before the horse so to speak about atypical Scrapie with it's may and may not be risk factors, because all science to date shows that in fact the Nor-98 is a risk factor to not only animal health, but human health as well. SINCE when did the 'may not' and 'may' become sound science ?
"may not be contagious and may, in fact, be a spontaneous degenerative condition of older sheep’ (22)."
The OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (the Code) does not cover atypical scrapie/Nor 98 because, it states, the condition ‘… is clinically, pathologically, biochemically and epidemiologically unrelated to ‘classical’ scrapie, may not be contagious and may, in fact, be a spontaneous degenerative condition of older sheep’ (22).
22. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (2009). – Terrestrial Animal Health Code. www.oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/en_chapitre_1.14.9.htm.
Last year, after examining member country submissions and investigating rigorous scientific research, the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) decided that atypical scrapie/Nor 98 should not be listed in its Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The Code sets out trade recommendations or restrictions for listed diseases or conditions, and the OIE determined there was no need for such recommendations around atypical scrapie/Nor 98.
Friday, May 7, 2010
Identification of atypical scrapie in Canadian sheep Brief Research Reports
Friday, August 27, 2010
NEW ATYPICAL NOR-98 SCRAPIE CASE DETECTED IDAHO NOW 5 CASES DOCUMENTED 2010
(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan.
This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...
Kind Regards, Terry
Thursday, January 07, 2010
Scrapie and Nor-98 Scrapie November 2009 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2010 and FISCAL YEAR 2008
Monday, December 14, 2009
Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types
TRANSMISSION OF SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TO HUMANS, why not ?
Sunday, April 18, 2010
SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010
SEE FULL TEXT ;
Sunday, October 3, 2010
Scrapie, Nor-98 atypical Scrapie, and BSE in sheep and goats North America, who's looking ?
Thursday, October 07, 2010
Experimental Transmission of H-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Bovinized Transgenic Mice